1 Java

1.1 Netty


  • Channel: Represents a network socket and provides an abstraction for I/O operations. Channels are used for sending and receiving data.
    • Write:adds the message to the outbound buffer but does not trigger an immediate flush of the buffer. The data remains in the buffer until a flush operation occurs.
    • WriteAndFlush:combines two operations: writing the message to the outbound buffer and immediately triggering a flush operation. The message is added to the buffer and flushed to the network without delay.
    • isWritable: The isWritable method is typically associated with the Channel class in Netty. This method is used to determine if it’s currently possible to write data to the channel without causing it to become congested. In other words, it indicates whether you can safely write data to the channel without overflowing its internal buffers and potentially causing memory issues or performance degradation.
  • EventLoop: Handles I/O events and executes tasks associated with those events. Each Channel has an associated EventLoop for event processing.
  • ChannelHandler: Handles inbound and outbound events related to a Channel. ChannelHandlers are responsible for protocol-specific logic, such as encoding, decoding, and processing incoming and outgoing data.
  • ChannelPipeline: Represents a chain of ChannelHandlers for processing inbound and outbound events in a Channel. It provides an organized way to handle data processing and transformation.
  • ByteBuf: An efficient data container in Netty that represents a flexible and resizable byte buffer. ByteBuf provides various read and write operations for efficient data manipulation.
  • Codec: A combination of an encoder and a decoder, used for transforming data between byte streams and Java objects. Codecs are commonly used in ChannelHandlers for protocol-specific encoding and decoding.
  • ChannelFuture: Represents the result of an asynchronous operation on a Channel. It provides a way to register listeners and handle completion or failure of the operation.
  • Bootstrap: A helper class for setting up a Channel and its associated resources, such as EventLoopGroup, ChannelHandlers, and options.
  • EventLoopGroup: Manages one or more EventLoops and their associated Channels. EventLoopGroups handle I/O event processing for multiple Channels efficiently.
  • NIO and Epoll: Netty provides different transport implementations based on the underlying I/O mechanism. NIO (Non-blocking I/O) and Epoll (Linux-specific event notification) are commonly used for efficient event-driven I/O operations.

1.2 Not yet mastered

  1. Netty Channel Status, like isWritable

2 Cpp

2.1 What is ABI

An Application Binary Interface (ABI) is a set of rules and conventions that dictate how low-level software components, such as libraries and system calls, should interact with each other at the binary level. In other words, it defines the interface between different parts of a computer program, specifying things like:

  • Calling conventions: How function calls are made and parameters are passed between different parts of a program, including the order in which they are placed in registers or on the stack.
  • Data representation: How data types are represented in memory or when passed between different parts of a program. This includes issues like endianness (byte order), data alignment, and data structure layout.
  • System call interface: How applications request services from the operating system, such as file I/O or network communication. ABIs define the conventions for making system calls, passing arguments, and receiving results.
  • Exception handling: How errors and exceptions are communicated and handled between software components.

3 Database

3.1 Task Readiness Analysis

In the context of task-based parallelism and scheduling, the specific mechanism for determining task readiness is often referred to as task dependency analysis or task readiness analysis. It involves analyzing the dependencies and conditions that need to be met for a task to be considered ready for execution.

Here are a few common approaches:

  1. Event-Driven Model: The system may employ event-driven mechanisms to notify the scheduler when a task becomes ready. Tasks or other components of the system can send signals or notifications to the scheduler, indicating that a task is ready to be executed.
  2. Polling Model: In some cases, the scheduler may periodically poll or check the state of tasks to determine their readiness. It can iterate over the task list and evaluate their readiness based on certain criteria

Event-Driven Model:

  • Pros:
    1. Efficiency: In the event-driven model, the program only consumes resources when an event occurs. This leads to efficient resource utilization as the program is not constantly checking for events.
    2. Real-time responsiveness: The event-driven model is well-suited for real-time applications as it can quickly respond to events as they occur, allowing for immediate updates or actions.
    3. Modularity: Events and their associated handlers can be organized into separate modules or components, promoting modular and reusable code.
  • Cons:
    1. Complex control flow: The event-driven model can lead to complex control flow, especially in larger applications with numerous event sources and handlers. Understanding and maintaining the flow of events can become challenging.
    2. Potential event ordering issues: The order in which events occur and are processed can sometimes introduce subtle bugs or race conditions, requiring careful design and synchronization mechanisms.
    3. Difficulty in debugging: Debugging event-driven programs can be more challenging due to their asynchronous nature. Tracking the flow of events and identifying the cause of issues can be trickier compared to sequential programs.

Polling Model:

  • Pros:
    1. Simplicity: The polling model is straightforward to implement as it involves periodic checking for events. The program follows a sequential flow and is easy to understand.
    2. Control over event checking frequency: With polling, you have control over how frequently events are checked. This can be useful when events are expected to occur at predictable intervals.
    3. Compatibility: The polling model can be used in environments where event-driven mechanisms are not available or practical.
  • Cons:
    1. Resource wastage: In the polling model, the program continuously checks for events, even if no events are occurring. This can lead to wasted computational resources and lower efficiency.
    2. Delayed responsiveness: The polling model may introduce latency in event handling since events are not immediately processed but rather checked at regular intervals. Real-time responsiveness can be compromised.
    3. Inefficient resource utilization: Continuous polling can consume unnecessary resources, especially in scenarios where events are infrequent or rare. This can impact system performance and scalability.

In StarRocks’ pipeline execution engine, opting for a polling model can offer significant advantages. This preference arises from the fact that the evaluation of driver status lacks strict constraints, necessitating the introduction of event-driven logic in various other common components. As a result, this proliferation of event-driven logic significantly amplifies the overall complexity.

3.2 Cache vs. Materialized View

A cache is filled on demand when there is a cache miss (so the first request for a given object is always slow, and you have the cold-start problem mentioned in Figure 5-10). By contrast, a materialized view is precomputed; that is, its entire contents are computed before anyone asks for it—just like an index. This means there is no such thing as a cache miss: if an item doesn’t exist in the materialized view, it doesn’t exist in the database. There is no need to fall back to some other underlying database. (This doesn’t mean the entire view has to be in memory: just like an index, it can be written to disk, and the hot parts will automatically be kept in memory in the operating system’s page cache.)

With a materialized view there is a well-defined translation process that takes the write-optimized events in the log and transforms them into the read-optimized representation in the view. By contrast, in the typical read-through caching approach, the cache management logic is deeply interwoven with the rest of the application, making it prone to bugs and difficult to reason about

3.3 Consensus Protocol

3.3.1 Paxos vs. Raft

Paxos and Raft are both consensus algorithms used to achieve agreement among a group of distributed systems. They are crucial for ensuring data consistency and fault-tolerance in distributed systems. Though they aim to solve the same fundamental problem, they differ in their design principles, ease of understanding, and some implementation details.

Here are the primary differences between Paxos and Raft:

  1. Origins and History:
    • Paxos: Proposed by Leslie Lamport in the 1980s, Paxos is often considered the foundation for many distributed consensus systems. Its initial description was theoretical and presented in the form of a fictional Greek island, which made it difficult for many to understand.
    • Raft: Introduced by Diego Ongaro and John Ousterhout in 2013, Raft was explicitly designed to be a more understandable alternative to Paxos. The primary motivation was to simplify the design and explanation of consensus to make it easier for system builders.
  2. Understandability:
    • Paxos: Paxos has been historically considered hard to understand and implement correctly. Many nuances are required for its correct implementation, and its theoretical basis can be daunting.
    • Raft: Raft’s design focuses on understandability. Its creators intentionally aimed for a consensus mechanism where the state and transitions are more directly tied, making it easier to build and reason about.
  3. Design Principles:
    • Paxos: Paxos operates in phases like ‘prepare’ and ‘accept’. It provides the foundation for many consensus systems, so variations like Multi-Paxos have been developed to handle continuous operation.
    • Raft: Raft breaks the consensus problem into smaller subproblems and addresses them individually. It employs terms like “leader election” and “log replication” to make the protocol more direct.
  4. Leader Election:
    • Paxos: Paxos does not natively emphasize a strong leader principle. Though it can have a leader in practice (like in Multi-Paxos), its base form doesn’t mandate one.
    • Raft: Raft relies on a strong leader approach. The system elects a leader, and all changes to the system state go through this leader. This design simplifies many aspects of the consensus process.
  5. Data Model:
    • Paxos: Paxos abstractly aims to reach consensus on a single value. For practical systems, enhancements (like Multi-Paxos) are used to agree on sequences of values or operations.
    • Raft: Raft natively works with a log-based model where the consensus is achieved on a sequence of commands. This ties in well with many practical systems that require a consistent and ordered history of operations.

3.4 Good Cases and Bad Cases of Distinct Agg

This chapter only for Starrocks

[Enhancement] optimize distinct agg

For sql like select count(distinct $1) from lineorder group by $2;, the count(distinct) can be achieved through 2-stage agg, 3-stage agg and 4-stage agg.

2-stage agg(use multi_distinct_count):

  • Local multi_distinct_count
  • Exchange shuffled by group by key
  • Global multi_distinct_count

3-stage agg:

  • Local Distinct, using both group by key and distinct key for bucketing
  • Exchange shuffled by group by key
  • Global Distinct, using both group by key and distinct key for bucketing
  • Global Count, use group by key for bucketing

4-stage agg:

  • Local Distinct, using both group by key and distinct key for bucketing
  • Exchange shuffled by group by key and distinct key
  • Global Distinct, using both group by key and distinct key for bucketing
  • Local Count, use group by key for bucketing
  • Exchange shuffled by group by key
  • Global Count, use group by key for bucketing

3.4.1 With Limit

This analysis is only for select count(distinct $1) from lineorder group by $2 limit 10;

2-stage agg(use multi_distinct_count):

  • Good Case:
    • The group by key has a medium-low cardinality, while distinct key has a non-high cardinality
  • Bad Case:
    • The group by key has a high cardinality
    • The group by key has a low cardinality

3-stage agg:

  • Good Case:
    The group by key has a high cardinality

  • Bad Case:
    The group by key has a medium-low cardinality

4-stage agg:

  • Good Case:
    • The group by key has a low cardinality, while distinct key has a high cardinality
  • Bad Case:
    • Other cases

3.4.2 Without Limit

This analysis is only for select count(distinct $1) from lineorder group by $2;

2-stage agg:

  • All cases are worse than other approaches

3-stage agg:

  • Good Case:
    • Almost all the cases
  • Bad Case:
    • Worse then 4-stage agg when the group by key has a low cardinality, while distinct key has a high cardinality

4-stage agg:

  • Good Case:
    • The group by key has a low cardinality, while distinct key has a high cardinality
  • Bad Case:
    • Other cases

3.5 Subquery Classification


3.6 Bitmap Index

3.6.1 Bitmap Index

Function of Bitmap Index:

  • Efficiency in Low Cardinality: If a column in a database has only a few unique values (like “Male” or “Female” in a gender column), then a traditional B-tree index isn’t very efficient. Bitmap indexes are much more space-efficient and can be faster for this type of data.
  • Combining Multiple Indexes: Bitmap indexes can be combined (using Boolean operations) more efficiently than other types of indexes. This makes them useful for queries that have multiple predicates.
  • Space Efficient: Bitmaps can be compressed, making them space-efficient compared to some other types of indexing mechanisms.


Book ID Title Genre
1 A Journey Within Fiction
2 The Life of a Scientist Biography
3 Universe Explained Non-Fiction
4 The Mountain’s Whisper Fiction
5 Leaders of Our Time Biography
6 Secrets of the Ocean Non-Fiction

Bitmap Index for the Genre column(Each distinct value has a bitmap):

  • Fiction -> 1 0 0 1 0 0
  • Biography -> 0 1 0 0 1 0
  • Non-Fiction -> 0 0 1 0 0 1

3.6.2 Bitmap Column

Bitmap columns, as used in systems like StarRocks, are a specialized storage format designed for efficiently representing sets of integers, typically IDs. The underlying principle is rooted in bitmap compression methods, especially Roaring Bitmaps, which is a popular technique used in many analytical databases and systems.

Let’s dive into the concept:

Basic Bitmaps:

At a basic level, a bitmap is a sequence of bits where each bit position corresponds to an integer. If the integer is present in the set, the bit is set to 1; otherwise, it’s 0.


Imagine you have a set of integers representing user IDs that accessed a website on a particular day: {2, 4, 5, 6}, a bitmap would look something like this:

Position: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ...
Bitmap: 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 ...


Storing raw bitmaps for large ID spaces would be inefficient, especially if the IDs are sparse. For instance, if you have an ID of 1,000,000 but only ten IDs in that range, a straightforward bitmap would have a lot of 0s and be space-inefficient.

This is where bitmap compression techniques, like Roaring Bitmaps, come into play.

Roaring Bitmaps:

Roaring Bitmaps are a form of compressed bitmap that divides the range of integers into chunks and represents each chunk in the most space-efficient manner:

  • Array Containers: If a chunk has a small number of values, it might store them as a simple array of 16-bit integers.
  • Bitmap Containers: If a chunk has a moderate number of values, it might represent them with a 64KB bitmap.
  • Run-Length Encoding (RLE) Containers: If a chunk has long runs of consecutive values, it will represent them as runs (start, length).

The container type that’s the most space-efficient for the chunk’s particular set of integers is used.


Now, imagine our user IDs are {2, 4, 5, 6, 10,000}.

If you were to use a straightforward bitmap, you’d have a very long string of 0s between the 1 for the ID 6 and the 1 for the ID 10,000. This is where the Roaring Bitmap approach becomes efficient.

Roaring Bitmap divides the range of integers into chunks. Let’s simplify this by saying each chunk represents a range of 8 numbers. (In real implementations, the chunk size is much larger.)

  • Chunk 1 (1-8): {2, 4, 5, 6} would be represented as 01011100.
  • Chunk 2 (9-16): No values, so all 0s: 00000000.
  • Chunk 1250 (9993-10000): Just the 10,000 ID, so 00000001.

Now, instead of storing all these chunks as is, Roaring Bitmaps compresses them:

  • Array Containers: If there’s a small number of values in a chunk (like our first chunk), it could store them as a simple array: [2, 4, 5, 6].
  • Run-Length Encoding (RLE) Containers: If there’s a long sequence of the same value, like our many chunks of all 0s between ID 6 and ID 10,000, it would just store the sequence as a start and length: (9, 9992) indicating from position 9 there are 9992 zeroes.
  • Bitmap Containers: If there’s a moderate number of values, it would store them as a mini bitmap. We didn’t have such an example in our data, but imagine if in one of the chunks, half the IDs were present; it would use a bitmap for that chunk.

3.6.3 Difference

  • Bitmap Index needs to get all row information of a particular value. But Bitmap Column only needs to check if a given value exists.
  • For Bitmap Index, each distinct value has a unique bitmap. But For Bitmap Column, each row has a bitmap.
  • For Bitmap Index, each position represents a row. For Bitmap Column, each position represents a existing value.

3.7 The Process of the CBO Optimization



┌─────────┐ ┌──────────┐
│ O_GROUP │ ◄──────────────► │ O_INPUTS │
└─────────┘ └──────────┘
│ ▲
│ │
▼ │
┌─────────┐ ┌────────────┐
│ O_EXPR │ ◄─────────────► │ APPLY_RULE │
└─────────┘ └────────────┘


3.8 Buffer Pool

3.8.1 Replacement Policy



  • Disadvantages: When some page is frequently used for a period of time, and it will stay in the poll for a long while(May be it can be solved with frequency degradation)

3.9 Not yet mastered

  1. WAL Structure
  2. LSM Structure

4 Operating System

4.1 Linux Memory Management


4.2 Virtualization



  • Full Virtualization: Full virtualization is a virtualization technique that allows multiple fully independent virtual machines (VMs), each with its own operating system and applications, to run on physical hardware. In full virtualization, VMs are unaware that they are running in a virtualized environment; they believe they are running on dedicated physical machines. This type of virtualization typically requires a hypervisor to manage the creation and execution of VMs.
  • Paravirtualization: Paravirtualization is a virtualization technique in which VMs are aware that they are running in a virtualized environment and cooperate with the virtualization layer. The operating systems within the VMs are modified to communicate with the virtualization layer, which can improve performance and efficiency. Paravirtualization often does not require a hypervisor as heavyweight as in full virtualization because the VMs are more tightly integrated with the virtualization layer.
  • Hardware-Assisted Virtualization: Hardware-assisted virtualization is a virtualization technique that relies on virtualization support extensions in the processor (CPU) and other hardware components. These extensions can enhance the performance and efficiency of virtual machines and reduce the reliance on virtualization software. For example, Intel’s VT-x and AMD’s AMD-V are common hardware virtualization extensions.

5 System Architecture

5.1 X86


  • Wide Compatibility: x86 processors are widely used in desktops, laptops, and servers, making them compatible with a vast array of software applications and operating systems designed for this architecture.
  • High Performance: In many cases, x86 processors offer excellent performance, especially in applications that benefit from a high clock speed and complex instruction set.
  • Virtualization: x86 processors have robust virtualization support, which is essential for running multiple virtual machines on a single server.
  • Optimized for Legacy Software: Many legacy applications and software packages have been developed specifically for x86 architecture, making it a good choice for running older software.


  • Power Consumption: x86 processors tend to consume more power compared to ARM processors, which can be a disadvantage in mobile and battery-powered devices.
  • Heat Generation: High-performance x86 processors generate more heat, requiring more advanced cooling solutions in some cases.
  • Cost: x86 processors are often more expensive than ARM processors, which can impact the cost-effectiveness of devices and servers.

5.2 Arm


  • Power Efficiency: ARM processors are known for their power efficiency, making them ideal for mobile devices, IoT (Internet of Things) devices, and battery-powered gadgets.
  • Scalability: ARM processors come in a wide range of configurations, from low-power microcontrollers to high-performance server-grade chips, allowing for scalability across various applications.
  • Customization: ARM architecture allows for more customization, which can be advantageous for companies looking to design their own chips tailored to specific needs.
  • Reduced Heat Generation: ARM processors generate less heat compared to high-performance x86 processors, reducing cooling requirements.


  • Software Compatibility: ARM-based devices may have limitations when it comes to running certain legacy x86 software, although this gap is closing with technologies like emulation and virtualization.
  • Performance: While ARM processors have made significant performance gains, they may not match the raw performance of high-end x86 processors in some compute-intensive tasks.
  • Complexity for Desktop and Server Applications: While ARM is making inroads in these areas, x86 architecture is still dominant for desktops and servers due to software compatibility and performance considerations.

5.3 Hardware

Computer motherboards typically have a variety of interfaces, each designed for different types of devices or functions. Here are some common types of interfaces you’ll find:

  • Peripheral Component Interconnect Express (PCIe): This is the most common type of expansion slot, used for graphics cards, sound cards, network cards, etc.
    • Non-Volatile Memory Express (NVMe, Protocol): NVMe is a communication protocol specifically developed for SSDs to take advantage of the high speeds provided by PCIe connections. NVMe drives are much faster than their SATA counterparts due to this protocol’s efficiency and the speed of the PCIe bus.
  • Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA): Used for connecting hard disk drives and solid-state drives.
  • USB Ports: For connecting various USB devices like keyboards, mice, printers, etc.
  • HDMI/DisplayPort: For connecting monitors.
  • RJ45 (Ethernet Port): For network connections.
  • Audio Interfaces: Includes ports for headphones, microphones, and speakers.
  • DIMM Slots: For installing RAM (memory sticks).
  • M.2 Slot: For installing M.2 form factor solid-state drives.
    • M.2 (Form Factor): M.2 is a specification for internally mounted computer expansion cards and associated connectors. It’s particularly known for its small size, making it ideal for laptops and compact PCs. M.2 slots can accommodate a variety of devices, including Wi-Fi cards and SSDs. M.2 SSDs can use either the SATA interface (slower) or the PCIe interface (faster).
  • PS/2 Ports: For connecting older keyboards or mice.
  • BIOS/CMOS Battery: For storing system time and basic hardware settings.
  • Power Connectors: Including the 24-pin main power connector and the CPU power connector.

6 Scheduler

6.1 Which scenarios are suitable for an event-driven model

In both Linux thread scheduling and brpc’s bthread coroutine scheduling, the smallest unit of scheduling is respectively a pthread and a bthread.

They share a common characteristic: the state changes of pthread or bthread can only occur through a few limited ways, such as:

  • Exhaustion of time slice
  • Explicit suspension or wake-up through Mutex/Futex
  • Execution of kernel-mode operations, such as system calls, in pthread
  • Execution of IO operations in bthread
  • Other limited ways

This ensures that the scheduling of pthreads and bthreads is controlled and managed in a controlled manner, and their state transitions adhere to specific mechanisms and events.

6.2 Which scenarios are not suitable for event-driven model

In a database system, the state changes of tasks (or operations in query execution plans) are typically more intricate, as they need to consider various factors such as dependencies, buffer capacity, and specific behaviors of operators (materialization, asynchronous operations), among others. These state changes often occur asynchronously, making it challenging to capture all the state transitions through synchronous events. Instead, it is usually necessary to actively query or examine the current state of tasks through function calls or methods.

In scenarios where the state changes of tasks or operations are complex and asynchronous, polling can be a more suitable approach. Polling involves actively querying or checking the current state of tasks or operations at regular intervals to determine if any changes have occurred.

In situations where events are not naturally generated or it is challenging to capture all state transitions through synchronous events, polling allows the system or application to actively monitor and track the status or progress of tasks. It provides a way to continuously check for updates or changes in the state and take appropriate actions based on the observed results.

By regularly polling the status of tasks or operations, applications can adapt dynamically to the changing state, make informed decisions, and trigger subsequent actions or processes accordingly. However, it’s important to strike a balance in terms of polling frequency to avoid excessive resource consumption.

Overall, polling can be a practical approach when dealing with complex and asynchronous state changes, allowing systems and applications to proactively monitor and respond to evolving conditions.

6.3 Event-driven system

Key characteristics of an event-driven system include:

  • Events: Events are occurrences that can trigger actions or reactions within the system. These events can be diverse, ranging from user interactions like button clicks, mouse movements, or keyboard input, to system-generated events like data updates, timeouts, or errors.
  • Event Handlers: Event handlers are pieces of code responsible for processing specific types of events. When an event occurs, the appropriate event handler is invoked to perform the necessary actions or computations. Event handlers are designed to handle one or more event types and are typically registered with the system in advance.
  • Asynchronicity: Event-driven systems are inherently asynchronous, meaning that components do not execute in a predetermined order. Instead, they respond to events as they occur, allowing for greater flexibility and responsiveness in handling dynamic situations.
  • Loose Coupling: In event-driven architectures, components are loosely coupled, which means they are not directly dependent on one another. This promotes modularity and reusability, as individual components can be added, removed, or replaced without affecting the entire system’s functionality.
  • Callbacks: Callbacks are a common mechanism used in event-driven programming. A callback function is provided as an argument to an event handler or registration function. When the associated event occurs, the callback function is invoked, allowing developers to define custom reactions to events.
  • Publish-Subscribe Model: A popular approach within event-driven systems is the publish-subscribe model. In this model, components can publish events to a central event bus or dispatcher. Other components, known as subscribers, can then register to listen for specific types of events and react accordingly when those events are published.
  • Scalability and Responsiveness: Event-driven architectures are well-suited for building scalable and responsive systems. By distributing the workload across multiple event handlers and components, the system can efficiently handle a large number of concurrent events and maintain responsiveness.

7 Network

8 Other

8.1 Parsing Algorithms

LL(1) and LR(1) are both types of parsing algorithms used in the context of compiler construction. They are used to generate a syntax tree or parse tree from the source code of a programming language. These algorithms differ in terms of their parsing techniques and the grammars they can handle.

LL(1) Parsing:

  • LL(1) stands for “Left-to-Right, Leftmost derivation, with 1 token lookahead.”
    It is a top-down parsing technique, meaning it starts from the root of the parse tree and works its way down to the leaves.

  • LL(1) parsers use a predictive parsing table to decide which production rule to apply based on the next token in the input stream.

  • LL(1) grammars are a subset of context-free grammars (CFGs) that are more restrictive. They must be unambiguous and have no left recursion.

  • The LL(1) parser is often easier to implement and more human-readable compared to LR(1) parsers.

  • It’s commonly used in simpler programming languages or for educational purposes.

LR(1) Parsing:

  • LR(1) stands for “Left-to-Right, Rightmost derivation, with 1 token lookahead.”
    It is a bottom-up parsing technique, meaning it starts with the individual tokens and builds up the parse tree from the leaves to the root.

  • LR(1) parsers use a state machine and a lookahead symbol to decide how to reduce or shift in the parsing process. LR(1) parsers are more powerful than LL(1) parsers.

  • LR(1) grammars are a superset of LL(1) grammars. They can handle a broader range of context-free grammars, including those with left recursion.

  • LR(1) parsers can handle more complex and ambiguous grammars, making them suitable for parsing real-world programming languages like C, C++, and Java.

  • Implementing an LR(1) parser can be more challenging and requires tools like parser generators (e.g., Bison, Yacc) to generate the parsing tables automatically.

In summary, LL(1) and LR(1) are both parsing techniques used in compiler construction, but they differ in terms of their parsing approach and the complexity of grammars they can handle. LL(1) is simpler and more limited in the grammars it can handle, while LR(1) is more powerful and can handle a wider range of grammars, making it more suitable for parsing complex programming languages.

8.2 Cache

  • Cache Hit: A cache hit occurs when a requested data is found in the cache. This leads to reduced data retrieval time and less load on the database, as the information can be served directly from the cache without querying the primary data source.
  • Cache Miss: A cache miss happens when the requested data is not found in the cache. This necessitates a query to the underlying database or service to retrieve the data, which is then often stored in the cache for future requests. Cache misses can increase the latency of data retrieval and put more load on the database.
  • Cache Penetration (缓存穿透): Cache penetration refers to a situation where queries are made for data that does not exist in the database or the cache, usually through non-existent keys or IDs. This can lead to unnecessary database queries, increasing load and potentially affecting performance. Strategies to mitigate cache penetration include using a null object pattern (caching the null result for a non-existent key) or implementing tighter validation of input queries.
  • Cache Breakdown (缓存击穿): Cache breakdown, also known as cache breakdown, occurs when a frequently accessed cache item expires, leading to concurrent requests hitting the database before the cache is refreshed. This can cause sudden spikes in database load, potentially leading to performance issues. Solutions to prevent cache breakdown include setting staggered expiration times, using a lock or semaphore to ensure only one query refreshes the cache, or employing “hot” data handling techniques where critical data is refreshed in the cache proactively.
  • Cache Avalanche (缓存雪崩): A cache avalanche is a more severe issue that occurs when many, or even all, cache entries expire simultaneously or the cache fails entirely, leading to a massive surge of database requests that can overwhelm the database and cause widespread system failure. Strategies to avoid cache avalanches include using varied expiration times for cached items to prevent simultaneous expirations, implementing redundant caching systems, and ensuring that the system has fallback mechanisms in place.

8.3 Assorted

  1. Reactive Programming
  2. Failed retry will loose fairness
  3. Distributed system, CAP problem.